Frédéric Bouchard

Areas of Specialisation

  • Philosophy of Biology
  • Philosophy of Science

Areas of Competence

  • Environmental Philosophy
  • Philosophy of Mind
  • Research System and Evaluation

Academic training

2004-2005 FQRSC post-doctoral fellow at the IHPST
University of Toronto
Under the supervision of Paul Thompson
1999-2004 Doctorat (Ph.D.2004) in philosophy
Duke University (defended May 27th 2004)
“Evolution, Fitness and the Struggle for Persistence”
Advisor: Alex Rosenberg.
Committee: Robert Brandon, Owen Flanagan and Dan McSchea.
1997-1999 Masters (MA 2000) in philosophy
Université de Montréal
1995-1997 BA in philosophy
Université de Montréal


  1. Affdal, Aliya ; Frédéric Bouchard; Charles Marsan; Ely Mermans; Vincent Mousseau; Vardit Ravitsky; Christine Rothmayr Allison; Simon St-Georges; Pierre Trudel; Francois-Joseph Lapointe. 2023 “Quand les bactéries font la loi : regards éthiques, épistémiques, juridiques, politiques, sociales et techniques sur l’utilisation du microbiome humain à des fins judiciaires” Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 10, no.2 :152-154 WEBSITE du projet avec vidéos
  2. Bouchard, Frédéric; Chan, Yolande; Patry, Gilles; Rossant, Janet; Schafer, Laurel; Singh, Baljit; Timmons, Vianne “Rapport du comité consultatif sur le système fédéral de soutien à la recherche / Report of the Advisory Panel on the Federal Research Support System” 2023 Gouvernement du Canada ISBN 978-0-660-48161-6 FRANÇAIS ENGLISH
  3. Bapteste, Eric, Philippe Gérard, Catherine Larose, Manuel Blouin, Fabrice Not, Liliane Campos, Géraldine Aïdan, M. A. Selosse, M. S. Adénis, Frédéric Bouchard, Sébastien Dutreuil, Eduardo Corel, Chloé Vigliotti, Philippe Huneman, F. J. Lapointe, and Philippe Lopez. 2021. “The Epistemic Revolution Induced by Microbiome Studies: An Interdisciplinary ViewBiology 10, no. 7: 651.
  4. Barberousse, Anouk et Bouchard, Frédéric “Environnement” in Jean Gayon et Thomas Pradeu (Eds) (2021) Philosophie de la biologie II: Évolution environnement et diversité biologique,
    Librairie philosophie J.Vrin, Paris, 415-426.[www]
  5. Traduction par Frédéric Bouchard et Mathieu Charbonneau de Robert N. Brandon “The concept of environment in the theory of natural selection”, Adaptation and Environment, Princeton (NJ), Princeton University Press, 1990, chap.2 pp. 45-77, in Jean Gayon et Thomas Pradeu (Eds) (2021) Philosophie de la biologie II: Évolution environnement et diversité biologique,
    Librairie philosophie J.Vrin, Paris, 415-426.[www]
  6. Etienne Lord, Jananan S Pathmanathan, Eduardo Corel, Vladimir Makarenkov, Philippe Lopez, Frédéric Bouchard, Debashish Bhattacharya, Pierre-Olivier Antoine, Hervé Le Guyader, François-Joseph Lapointe, Eric Bapteste (2019) “Introducing Trait Networks to Elucidate the Fluidity of Organismal Evolution Using Palaeontological Data”, Genome Biology and Evolution, Vol.11 (9): 2653–2665 [www|pdf]
  7. Christophe Malaterre, Antoine C Dussault, Sophia Rousseau-Mermans, Gillian Barker, Beatrix E Beisner, Frédéric Bouchard, Eric Desjardins, I Tanya Handa, Steven W Kembel, Geneviève Lajoie, Virginie Maris, Alison D Munson, Jay Odenbaugh, Timothée Poisot, B Jesse Shapiro, Curtis A Suttle (2019) “Functional Diversity: An Epistemic Roadmap”, BioScience, Vol. 69 (10): 800–811 [www]
  8. Frédéric Bouchard Symbiosis, Transient Biological Individuality, and Evolutionary Processes” in Daniel J. Nicholson, John Dupré (Eds) (2018) Everything flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology Oxford University Press, 186-198.  [www|pdf]
  9. Frédéric Bouchard, David Montminy “Pourquoi et comment déférer aux experts scientifiques” in François Claveau, Julien Prud’homme (Dir.) (2018) Experts, sciences et sociétés Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 219-235.  [www|pdf|epub]
  10. Frédéric Bouchard “Darwinian Ethics: Biological Individuality and Moral Relativism” in Michael Ruse, Robert J. Richards (Eds) (2017) The Cambridge Companion to Evolutionary Ethics Cambridge University Press, 243-256.
  11. Antoine C. Dussault, Frédéric Bouchard (early access), “A Persistence Enhancing Propensity Account of Ecological Function to Explain Ecological Evolution”, Synthese
  12. Frédéric Bouchard (early access), “The Roles of Institutional Trust and Distrust in Grounding Rational Deference to Scientific Expertise”, Perspectives on Science, Vol. 24 (5): 582-608
  13. Julien Prud’homme, Pierre Doray, Frédéric Bouchard (Eds) (May 2015), Science, technologies et sociétés de A à Z, Presses de l’Université de Montréal
  14. Alex Rosenberg et Frédéric Bouchard (2015), « Fitness » (3e édition, révisions majeures) in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy  [www]
  15. Thiago Hutter, Carine Gimbert, Frédéric Bouchard, François-Joseph Lapointe (2015), “Being Human is a gut feeling“, Microbiome, Vol.3, 9
  16. Frédéric Bouchard (2014), “Ecosystem Evolution is About Variation and Persistence, not Populations and Reproduction“, Biological Theory, Vol.9 (4): 382-391
  17. Frédéric Bouchard, Philippe Huneman (Eds) (2013) From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality, MIT Press, Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology, 288p
    [MIT Press|||barnes&noble|||]
  18. Frédéric Bouchard “What Is a Symbiotic Superindividual and How Do You Measure Its Fitness?” in Frédéric Bouchard, Philippe Huneman (Eds) (2013) From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality, MIT Press, Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology, 288p
  19. Frédéric Bouchard (2013), Book Review of “Les limites du soi: immunologie et identité biologique” by Thomas Pradeu in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, Vol 35 (1): 122-123
  20. Eric Bapteste, Philippe Lopez, Frédéric Bouchard, Fernando Baquero, James O. McInerney, Richard M. Burian (2012), “Evolutionary analyses of non-genealogical bonds produced by introgressive descent”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS, USA), Vol. 109 (45): 18266-18272
  21. Frédéric Bouchard (2013), “How Ecosystem Evolution Strengthens the Case for Functional Pluralism“in Functions: selection and mechanisms, ed by Philippe Huneman, Dordrecht: Springer, “Synthese Library”, Vol. 363
  22. Frédéric Bouchard (2012), “Des fourmis et des hommes : examen des prémisses darwiniennes dans la pensée de Benoît Dubreuil“, Philosophiques, Vol. 39 (1): 265-270
  23. Eric Bapteste, Frédéric Bouchard, and Richard M. Burian (2012),”Philosophy and Evolution: Minding the Gap Between Evolutionary Patterns and Tree-Like Patterns“, in Evolutionary Genomics: Statistical and Computational Methods (Vol 2), Series: Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol. 856), ed by Maria Anisimova, New York: Humana Press (Springer)
  24. Frédéric Bouchard (2011), Reviewer’s commentary (report #3) of “Biased gene transfer and its implications for the concept of lineage” (2011) by Cheryl P Andam and J Peter Gogarten, Biology Direct, Vol 6(1), 2011
  25. Liow, Lee Hsiang, Carl Simpson, Frédéric Bouchard, John Damuth, Benedikt Hallgrimsson, Gene Hunt, Daniel W. McShea, Jeffery Powell, Nils Christian Stenseth, Melissa Stoller & Gunter Wagner. (2011) “Pioneering Paradigms and Magnificent Manifestos — Leigh Van Valen’s priceless contributions to evolutionary biology.”, Evolution Vol 65 (4) pp.917-922
  26. Frédéric Bouchard (2011)Book review of “Subjects of the World: Darwin’s Rhetoric and the Study of Agency in Nature” by Paul Sheldon Davies, The Quarterly Review of Biology Vol 86 (1) pp.37-38
  27. Frédéric Bouchard (2011)”Darwinism without populations: a more inclusive understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”“, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences Vol 42 (1) pp.106-114
  28. Frédéric Bouchard (2010)”Symbiosis, Lateral Function Transfer and the (many) saplings of life“, Biology and Philosophy Vol 25 (4) pp.623-641
  29. Frédéric Bouchard (2009) “Understanding colonial traits using symbiosis research and ecosystem ecology“, Biological Theory Vol 4 (3) pp.240-246
    [www|pdf| epub|kindle]
  30. Frédéric Bouchard (2009) “La fitness au-delà des gènes et des organismes” in Les mondes darwiniens ed par Heams, Huneman, Lecointre & Siberstein, Éditions Syllepse, France, pp. 285-304
  31. Frédéric Bouchard (2009) Book review of “Science, Politics and Evolution” by Elisabeth A. Lloyd in Isis 2009, 100: 444-445
  32. Frédéric Bouchard (2008) “Causal Processes, Fitness and the Differential Persistence of LineagesPhilosophy of Science 75 2008: 560-570
    [www|pdf|epub|kindle ]
  33. Frédéric Bouchard (2008) “Ernst Mayr et la définition des espèces“[in numéro anniversaire sur l’héritage de Darwin], Les dossiers de LA RECHERCHE, 33: 50-54
  34. Alex Rosenberg and Frédéric Bouchard (2008), ‘Fitness‘ (2nd edition) in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (
  35. Frédéric Bouchard, (2007) Book review of “Minerva’s Aviary: Philosophy at Toronto, 1843-2003.” by John G. Slater. in Scientia Canadensis 30 (2) 2007 : 123-142
  36. Frédéric Bouchard (2007) “Évolution d’écosystèmes sans réduction à la fitness des parties” in Le tout et les parties dans les systèmes naturels, collection « Philosophie des sciences », ed Th. Martin, Éditions Vuibert, Paris, pp.57-64.
  37. Frédéric Bouchard (2007) “Moving beyond the influence of molecular genetics on the debate about reductionism in philosophy of biology” in The Influence of Genetics in Scientific and Philosophical Thinking, collection “Logic, Epistemology and the Unity of Science”, Vol.6, co-ed.Anne Fagot-Largeault, Shahid Rahman, Juan Manuel Torres, Springer Academic Publishers. 280 p.
  38. Frédéric Bouchard (2007) ‘Rationalité et néo-darwinisme : l’origine de la pensée selon de Sousa‘, Dialogue: revue canadienne de philosophie Vol.46 (1) pp.155-163
  39.  Frédéric Bouchard,(2007) ‘Ideas that stand the [evolutionary] test of time.’, Interdisciplines: adaptation and representation, C.N.R.S, Paris.
  40. Frédéric Bouchard (2006), ‘Fitness‘ in The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia, pp.310-315, ed. par Sahotra Sarkar et Jessica Pfeifer, Routledge Press.
  41. Alex Rosenberg and Frederic Bouchard (2005) “Matthen and Ariew’s Obituary to Fitness: Reports of Its Death Have Been Greatly ExaggeratedBiology and Philosophy Vol.20 (2-3) pp.343-353.
  42. Frédéric Bouchard (2004), “Evolution, Fitness and the Struggle for Persistence“, PhD thesis, Alex Rosenberg (supervisor), Duke University, 214 p.
  43. Frédéric Bouchard and Alex Rosenberg (2004) “Fitness, Probability and the Principles of Natural SelectionBritish Journal for the Philosophy of Science Vol. 55 (4) 2004, pp.693-712.
    [www|pdf|epub|kindle] ***reprinted in Stefan Linquist (ed.) (2010) “Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology (The International Library of Essays on Evolutionary Thought)” Vol 1,Ashgate Publishing
  44. Frédéric Bouchard and Alexander Rosenberg (2003), “Drift, Fitness and the Foundations of Probability“, in: Determinism in Physics and Biology, ed.  Andreas Hüttemann, Paderborn: mentis: 108-137.
  45. Alex Rosenberg and Frederic Bouchard, (2003) ‘Fitness‘ in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy



Frédéric Bouchard (Feb 5 2022) “L’éducation est la seule potion magiquewww

Frédéric Bouchard (April 11 2021) “Pour un engagement de coeur et de raison envers le savoirwww

Frédéric Bouchard (October 6 2020) “Gravir ensemble les plus hauts sommets du savoir” www

Frédéric Bouchard (April 20 2020) “L’impératif de cultiver les fruits de la recherche” www

Frédéric Bouchard (October 5 2019) “L’université, mortier de notre avenir collectif” www

Frédéric Bouchard (October 16 2017) “Combien vaut un verre d’eau” www

Frédéric Bouchard (2011), “Remplacer les plans d’affaires par des plans de développement pour toute l’Université“, L’Autre Forum Vol. 15 (1), pp. 6-12

Citation index via

Fellowships and Grants

2017 FQRSC subvention programme AUDACE, (Principal investigator: François-Joseph Lapointe), 5 researchers
“Quand les bactéries font la loi – enjeux scientifiques, philosophiques, éthiques, politiques et légaux de l’utilisation du microbiome à des fins d’identification judiciaire”

2017 SSHRC  CONNEXION Grant, (Principal investigator: Gregory Mikkelson), 4 researchers
Convergence and Divergence between Animal and Environmental Ethics”
2015-2018 LIA subvention Laboratoire international associé CNRS (France)
(Principal Investigator: Philippe Huneman, CNRS)
Epistemological and Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology (ECIEB)
2014-2018 SSHRC INSIGHT Grant with Christophe Malaterre
“On the Epistemological Diversity of Biodiversity Concepts”
2010-2013 SSHRC Standard Research Grant
“Understanding emergent superorganisms to define biological individuality”
2005-2008 SSHRC Standard Research Grant
“The new laws of biology and the expansion of evolutionary theory”
2005-2008 FQRSC subvention établissement nouveaux professeurs-chercheurs
“Rôle des généralisations et des tendances en épistémologie de la théorie de l’évolution”
2007-2008 SSHRC International Opportunities Fund
(Principal Investigator, Denis Walsh, University of Toronto)
For the Consortium for the History and Philosophy of Biology
2004-2005 FQRSC Post-Doctoral Fellowship (Fonds québecois de la recherche sur la société et la culture).
Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
University of Toronto under the supervision of Paul Thompson.
2003-2004 Evan Frankel Fellow
Duke University
1999-2004 Graduate school fellowship and stipend for the PhD in philosophy
Duke University
1999-2003 Doctoral fellowship from the SSHRC (Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada) 
1999-2002 Doctoral fellowship from the FQRSC (Québec’s equivalent of the Canadian fellowship)


2024 Chevalier, Ordre national du Québec (Québec)
2023 Chevalier, Ordre des Palmes académiques (France)
2021 Fellow, Royal Society of Canada
2014-2016 ÉSOPE Chair of philosophy
Université de Montréal
Juillet 2013 Invited Professor, Centre for Philosophy of Science of the University of Lisbon
Summer School on Evolution
2008 Teaching award “Excellence en enseignement: catégorie professeur en début de carrière
Université de Montréal
2008 Teaching award “Excellence en enseignement: secteur lettres et sciences humaines
Faculté des arts et des sciences, Université de Montréal
2003-2004 Named Instructorship award, William B. Peach Instructor of Philosophy
Duke University

Experience and Service

Philosophy Department, Université de Montréal

  • Member of the Equity Committee (2011-…)
  • Member of the Colloquium Committee (2011-2012)
  • Director of Graduate Studies (2007-2011)
  • Member of the Hiring and Promotion Committee (2010-2011)
  • Member of the Studies Committee (2007-2011) (2013-…)
  • Member of the Graduate Studies Committee (2005-2011)
  • Secretary to Departemental Assembly (2005-2008)
  • Departemental co-administrator for IT services DGTIC(2005-…)

Institutional services

  • Deputy Vice-Rector for Research, Discovery, Creation and Innovation (2015-2017)
  • Graduate program in environmental studies and sustainable development
    • director (2012-2015)
    • member of graduate studies program (2009-…)
    • member of sterring committee for the creation of the program (2008-2009)
  • Institut en environnement, développement durable et économie circulaire (HEC, Poly, UdeM)
    • member of the managing committee (2014-…)
    • member of the steering committee (2014)
  • member of the comité des différends (2014-2017)
  • alternate member on the comité d’appel des différends (2013-2014)
  • member of the comité des élections et des candidatures de la FAS (CELCAN) (2013-2014)
  • member of the comité de nomination du doyen de la FAS (CONODOY) (2011-2012)
  • member of the conseil de la faculté des arts et sciences (CONFAS) (2011-2015)
  • member of the Commission des études (COMET) (2010-2014)
  • member of the comité des nominations de la Commission des études (CONOMET) (2011-2014)
  • member of the comité de nomination du directeur, études anglaises (CONODIR) (2011)
  • member of the comité de nomination du directeur, Philosophie (CONODIR) (2010)
  • member of graduate studies committee of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences (COETSUP) (2007-2010)
  • member of teaching excellence award committee for the Faculty of Arts and Sciences (2009, 2014)
  • member of the FAS committee for attribution of the Angers-Poulin fellowship (2010)
  • member of teaching excellence award committee for the Université de Montréal (2009, 2010, 2014)
  • member of the UdeM committee for attribution of the Vanier Canada Gradute Scholarships (Vanier CGS) (2009, 2010)
  • member of the UdeM committee for attribution of SSHRC MA (2007,2009,2010) and PhD fellowships (2007, 2009)